ASEAN: AICHR Peace & Human Rights Education

Promote a culture of diversity, peace, and a respect for human rights through professional development of Cambodian women teachers and members of marginalized communities

Regionalization is a significant factor in U.S. foreign policy in Southeast Asia as it presents as many opportunities as risks. The People’s Republic of China (PRC) has always played a significant role in Southeast Asian politics and development. However, in recent years, it has assumed an increasingly more aggressive approach in the region, and the increase in cross-border exchange and integration has become a new factor in PRC strategies. The U.S. stands to lose opportunities for improvement and growth in the region in nearly all fields of foreign policy, from market position to socio-political influence, should it overlook or underestimate the PRC’s elevated posture and leverage in the Southeast Asian region.

To this end, as regionalization increases, there will be increasing opportunities for the PRC to influence ASEAN member states as well as Cambodia. To a large extent, with the Cambodian elite’s alliance with the PRC, Cambodia is becoming increasingly important to the PRC as a strategic gateway to manipulating ASEAN member states. On the other hand, regionalization can also present strategic opportunities for facilitating U.S. foreign policy in the region.

As Cambodian institutions coordinate and integrate with ASEAN member institutions, there will be opportunities for increased dialogue between Cambodian and ASEAN institutions on issues that the Governments would not have entertained, let alone encouraged. This proposal includes the development of a Peace and Human Rights Education Program drawn from other countries in ASEAN. The program would be developed under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) for grassroots education in Cambodia and Cambodian student teacher training centers. Apart from the diplomatic efforts necessary to facilitate the project’s completion, we will initiate the project with a public commitment to AICHR’s core treaty obligations.


Expert Meeting
Atrocity Prevention through Education
in South and Southeast Asia
18 May 2021
8:00-10:30am EST


CAMBODIA — The preamble to the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide states that “genocide is a crime under international law,” yet, since the Genocide Convention was ratified in 1949, how many genocides have occurred?  And how many of these genocides have been prosecuted under national or international law?  Since 1949, only three genocides (Cambodia, Bosnia, and Rwanda) have been prosecuted in an international court.

Cambodia lost approximately two million lives in less than four years.  It has been over fourty years since the collapse of the Khmer Rouge and 5 million survivors are still alive today.  I am one of them.  Most survivors continue to struggle with the horrors they witnessed or suffered, and the effects of the period resonate in their lives, not only in the form of mental trauma, but also health conditions and injuries that persist with little public recognition, let alone actual support in services and care.

The Documentation Center of Cambodia (DC-Cam) has established itself as not only the world’s largest repository for records about the Khmer Rouge regime, but also a key contributor to genocide education in Cambodia.  We have also been working with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) on this topic.  Our work continues to proceed incrementally, but steadily, forward because ASEAN, though one community, continues to co-exist with invisible, but still very sensitive, lines.

DC-Cam sees documentation and genocide education as crucial components to preventing and addressing the effects of genocide; however, this is just one dimension of our overall effort.  In 2021, DC-Cam will be expanding its work with survivors to include support to their medical care and well-being.  DC-Cam will be implementing activities directly aimed at improving their health, welfare, and well-being, as well as field research and outreach activities that raise public awareness of the struggles of survivors.  The nation-wide project represents a great step forward in not only calling attention to and actually addressing the great gap in services and support for the health, welfare, and well-being of survivors of genocide, but also transforming the concept of transitional justice into restorative justice.

Restorative justice depends upon leveraging pre-existing entry points and approaches as much as creating new ones that are based on a contemporary, evolving society.  One guiding question asked for a response to the main entry points for promoting atrocity prevention, and my response would be that grassroots as well national-level stakeholders and institutions are equally important to achieving any impactful change.  Another guiding question asked to identify the education tools that have been most useful for education related to atrocity prevention, and I reiterate that impactful change depends as much on leveraging well-known and accepted approaches to learning as much as introducing new ones.  DC-Cam has implemented a marriage of traditional as well as contemporary forms of learning and education in order to achieve a combination of the old and new.  In this way, education both partially reaffirms a person’s prior knowledge and experience, as much as it transforms what they know and think about the world.  I close by stating that transitional justice can only be justice if it is truly founded upon a credible and impactful effort aimed at restoring as much as transforming the society and each individual person.

Youk Chhang
Documentation Center of Cambodia


As we commemorate the thirtieth anniversary of the Paris Peace Agreements, we would do well to recognize the importance of history, and in particular Cambodia’s military history, for the region and the world. Cambodia’s history should be recognized as a national resource to inform the country’s strategic development, influence, and leadership in the ASEAN region.

Military history has been described as the research of war and the analysis of victory and defeat; however, it also encompasses much more.  Military history covers a range of topics from the rise and fall of regimes to the transformation of countries, and how humanity repeats and/or learns from its mistakes. Cambodia’s history is filled with unique lessons for the country, region and world.

Cambodia was a significant crossroads in the Cold War struggle between ideologies, political systems, and foreign policy agendas. The history of Cambodia that led up to, and comprises part of, the history of foreign interventions in the region demonstrates how critical the country is to regional security, and the region’s security is to global security. Further, the mass atrocities, war, and deprivation that colored so much of Cambodia’s history in the latter part of the twentieth century provide important lessons on the conditions that precipitate and result from instability, war, and genocide. Cambodia’s history is an illustration of the human spirit, as much as a lesson in the depths of human depravity.

The history of Cambodia is also punctuated by numerous attempts by neighboring countries to encroach upon, occupy, and even usurp territory from the Cambodian people.  Studying the history of these past relations, disputes, and conflicts will not provide a roadmap for current or future diplomatic or military affairs; however, this history is a national resource that empowers leaders with strategic wisdom on how to manage relations with neighbors and the world. 

Cambodia’s history, and particularly its military history, provides an important resource for the development of strategic wisdom for our country, our region, and world leaders. Cambodia’s military history is full of lessons on how (and when) to wisely exercise restraint, when to exercise patience, and when to exercise boldness in defending national security.  Cambodian military leaders can look to Cambodia’s military history as a national resource in building up not only their own strategic wisdom, but also the professionalism of their organization and officer ranks.

Cambodia’s national security depends upon a professional military organization.  Professional military organizations require competent leaders who are not only strategists but also historians—because no successful strategy can be developed without an understanding of history.

History shapes the core components of all successful strategies.  Military history ensures that strategy is not only informed by the current operational environment, tactics and doctrine, but also the successes and mistakes of the past.  History can provide you insights into whether the objectives of your strategy are acceptable, whether the methods for achieving your objectives are even feasible, and how your predecessors fared in using the same or different strategies in the past.  Military history is a key component of all combined military and national security strategies.

The member states and collective leadership of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), also requires leaders that are historians as well as strategists.  Cambodia’s military history is uniquely important to the peace and security of the region because many battles, struggles, and geopolitical strategies were centered within Cambodia’s military history.  Cambodia was a key center of gravity during the various wars, conflicts, and struggles of the 20th century within the region.  In the wake of the First Indochina War, Cambodia became independent, and during the Second Indochina War, Cambodia was the epicenter of one of the largest aerial bombardments in world history.   Cambodia’s geopolitical location during the Second Indochina War made it a critical battleground between various competing actors.

Between 1975-1979, the people of Cambodia also suffered unspeakable tragedy under the genocidal Khmer Rouge regime, and though the Khmer Rouge were overthrown from power in 1979, Cambodia continued to struggle with war, famine, and humanitarian crises resulting in the death, displacement, or resettlement of millions of Cambodians.  The defeat of the Khmer Rouge was not only a strategic victory for Cambodia, it was a strategic victory for ASEAN and the world.

The military engagements, maneuvers, and strategies that played out in Cambodia between 1979 and 1993 rippled across the region, and to some extent many of these forces shaped (and still shape) the geopolitics of ASEAN today.  Cambodia’s military history is a history of not only battles and military maneuvers but also key political decisions and strategies that remain important references for informing national security and collective ASEAN strategy in the Southeast Asian region today.

As we mark the thirtieth anniversary of the Paris Peace Agreements, we should take the opportunity to not only reflect on what we must learn from the history surrounding these agreements, but also how much we can learn from all of Cambodia’s history.  The importance of this history is perhaps no greater than now, as Cambodia prepares to assume the chair for the ASEAN in 2022.  As Cambodia prepares to assume the chair for ASEAN, we should recognize this upcoming leadership role as an opportunity to leverage, among many other resources, Cambodia’s history to inform the Cambodian and ASEAN peoples’ collective development, partnership and leadership.  Cambodia’s history is part and parcel to envisioning a collective peace and security for the ASEAN region.

Photo of the Samdech Pichey Sena Tea Banh, Deputy Prime Minister & Minister of National Defense of Cambodia (right), and General Nem Sowath, Special Advisor to the Defense Minister (left) inspect the Anlong Veng Peace Center’s (DC-Cam) plans to build a Win-Win monument.

Photo of Samdech Pichey Sena Tea Banh, Deputy Prime Minister & Minister of National Defense of Cambodia and his special advisor, General Nem Sowat (standing right).  Next to General Sowat is Lieutenant General Meas Sina (standing left) with Mr. Youk Chhang (sitting). The distinguished party was visiting a proposed military history zone near the Anlong Veng Peace Center, Oddar Meanchey Province, along the Cambodian-Thai border.  Photo by Ly Kok-Chhay, 6 March 2020.

~ Youk Chhang is the director of the Documentation Center of Cambodia, and a leader in genocide education, prevention, and research. In 2018, Chhang received the Ramon Magsaysay Award, known as “Asia’s Nobel Prize,” for his work in preserving the memory of genocide and seeking justice in the Cambodian nation and the world. In 2007, he was nominated as Time Magazine’s top 100 men and women. Chhang has worked with civil society organizations and leaders around the world, including Iraq, Afghanistan, Syria, Myanmar, and other post-conflict developing countries. For the past 18 months, he has also been doing extensive research on Cambodian military history and military zones with General Nem Sowath of the Cambodia’s Ministry of National Defense.

ដោយ៖ ឆាំង យុ​ នាយក​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​ឯកសារ​កម្ពុជា​
​ប្រែ​សម្រួល​ជា​ភាសា​ខ្មែរ​ដោយ: សុភ័ក្ត្រ ភា​ណា​

ភ្នំពេញ៖​ ​ខណៈពេលដែល​យើង​រំឭក​ខួប​លើក​ទី​៣០​នៃ​សន្ធិសញ្ញា​សន្តិភាព​ទីក្រុង​ប៉ារីស យើង​នឹង​បំពេញ​កាតព្វកិច្ច​បាន​យ៉ាង​ប្រសើរ​មួយ​ក្នុងការ​ទទួលស្គាល់​សារសំខាន់​នៃ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ ជាពិសេស​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​កម្ពុជា ចំពោះ​តំបន់ និង​ពិភពលោក​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា គួរតែ​ត្រូវ​ទទួលស្គាល់ថា​ជា​ធនធាន​ជាតិ​មួយ ជំរុញ​ដល់​ការអភិវឌ្ឍ​ជា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​របស់​ប្រទេសជាតិ ជះឥទ្ធិពល និង​ភាពជា​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​របស់​កម្ពុជា​នៅក្នុង​តំបន់​អាស៊ាន​។​

សម្តេច​ពិជ័យ​សេនា ទៀ បាញ់ ឧបនាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី និង​ជា​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី​ការពារជាតិ​កម្ពុជា និង​ឧ​ត្ត​ម​សេនីយ៍ ណឹ​ម សុវត្ថិ (​ខាងស្តាំ​)​។ នាយទាហាន​បន្ទាប់ពី​ឯកឧត្តម ណឹ​ម សុវត្ថិ គឺ​ឧ​ត្ត​ម​សេនីយ៍​ឯក មាស ស៊ីណា (​នៅ​ខាងឆ្វេង​) និង​លោក ឆាំង យុ (​អង្គុយ​)​។ គណៈប្រតិភូ​កិត្តិយស​បានធ្វើ​ទស្សនកិច្ច​នៅ​ទីតាំង​ដាក់​ស្នើ​ជា​តំបន់​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា ស្ថិត​នៅក្បែរ​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​សន្តិភាព​អន្លង់វែង ខេត្ត​ឧ​ត្ត​រ​មានជ័យ តាម​បណ្តោយ​ព្រំដែន​កម្ពុជា​-​ថៃ​។ រូបថត​ដោយ លី កុក​ឆាយ ថ្ងៃទី​៦ ខែមីនា ឆ្នាំ​២០២០​។​

​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា ត្រូវបាន​ពិពណ៌នា​ថា គឺជា​ការសិក្សា​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​អំពី​សង្គ្រាម និង​ការវិភាគ​អំពី​ជ័យជំនះ និង​បរាជ័យ​។ ទោះបីជា​យ៉ាងណាក៏ដោយ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា រួមបញ្ចូល​នូវ​ធាតុ​ផ្សំ​ជាច្រើន​ដទៃទៀត​លើសពីនេះ​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​ក្តោប​នូវ​ប្រធានបទ​ជាច្រើន ដែល​រួមមាន​វឌ្ឍនភាព និង​បរាជ័យ​នៃ​របប​នីមួយៗ​រហូតដល់​ការវិវត្ត​របស់​ប្រទេសជាតិ​នានា ព្រមទាំង​សកម្មភាព​ដែល​មនុស្សជាតិ សាង​កំហុស​ដដែលៗ ឬ​បាន​រៀនសូត្រ​ពី​កំហុស​របស់ខ្លួន​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា ពោរពេញ​ទៅដោយ​មេរៀន​ឥតមាន​ពីរ​សម្រាប់​ប្រទេស​របស់ខ្លួន តំបន់ និង​ពិភពលោក​។​

​ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា គឺជា​ចំណុចប្រសព្វ​ដ៏​សំខាន់​ជា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​មួយ នៃ​ការតស៊ូ​ប្រទាញប្រទង់​គ្នា​ក្នុងអំឡុង​សង្គ្រាមត្រជាក់​រវាង មនោគមន៍វិជ្ជា ប្រព័ន្ធ​នយោបាយ និង​ទំនោរ​នៃ​គោលនយោបាយ​ការបរទេស​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា​ដែល​ញ៉ាំង​ឲ្យ​កើតមាន និង​ជា​ផ្នែក​ខ្លះ​នៃ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​ទាក់ទង​នឹង​អន្តរាគមន៍​ពី​សំណាក់​បរទេស​នៅក្នុង​តំបន់ សបញ្ជាក់​ឲ្យ​ឃើញថា ប្រទេស​កម្ពុ​ជាមាន​សារសំខាន់​យ៉ាងដូចម្តេច​ចំពោះ​សន្តិសុខ​នៅក្នុង​តំបន់ ហើយ​សន្តិសុខ​នៅក្នុង​តំបន់​មាន​សារសំខាន់​យ៉ាងដូចម្តេច ចំពោះ​សន្តិសុខ​ពិភពលោក​។ បន្ថែម​លើសពីនេះទៅទៀត ការសម្លាប់​រង្គាល សង្គ្រាម និង​ការបំផ្លិចបំផ្លាញ កើតមាន​ជាច្រើនលើក​ច្រើនសា​នៅក្នុង​ទំព័រ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុ​ជានា​ចុង​សតវត្សរ៍​ទី​២០ បានផ្តល់​ជា​មេរៀន​សំខាន់ៗ ស្តីអំពី​ស្ថានភាព​ដែល​កើតមានឡើង និង​លទ្ធផល​ពី​អស្ថិរភាព សង្គ្រាម និង​អំពើ​ប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា គឺជា​តឹកតាង​មួយ​នៃ​ស្មារតី​ដ៏​រឹងមាំ​របស់​មនុស្ស ក៏ដូចជា​មេរៀន​ស្តីពី​ជម្រៅ​នៃ​ទុច្ចរិត​ភាព​របស់​មនុស្ស​។​

សម្តេច​ពិជ័យ​សេនា ទៀ បាញ់ ឧបនាយករដ្ឋមន្ត្រី និង​ជា​រដ្ឋមន្ត្រី​ការពារជាតិ​កម្ពុជា (​ខាងស្តាំ​) និង​ឧ​ត្ត​ម​សេនីយ៍ ណឹ​ម សុវត្ថិ ទីប្រឹក្សា​ពិសេស​របស់​សម្តេច​ពិជ័យ​សេនា ទៀ បាញ់ (​ខាងឆ្វេង​) អញ្ជើញ​ពិនិត្យ​គម្រោង​នៅឯ​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​សន្តិភាព​អន្លង់វែង (​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​ឯកសារ​កម្ពុជា​) ដើម្បី​បង្កើតជា​ស្តូប​អនុស្សាវរីយ៍​ឈ្នះ ឈ្នះ​។​

​​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា ត្រូវបាន​បន្ទច់បង្អាក់​ជាច្រើនលើក​ច្រើនសា ដោយ​ប្រទេសជិតខាង ដើម្បី​ទន្ទ្រាន​យក គ្រប់គ្រង និង​ដណ្តើម​កាន់កាប់​ទឹកដី​ពី​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា​។ ការសិក្សា​អំពី​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​នៃ​ទំនាក់ទំនង ទំនាស់ និង​ជម្លោះ​កាលពី​អតីតកាល​ទាំងអស់នេះ មិនអាច​ត្រួស​ត្រាយផ្លូវ​សម្រាប់​ការទូត ឬ​កិច្ចការ​យោធា​នាពេល​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​ឬ​អនាគត​ទេ ក៏ប៉ុន្តែ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​នេះ គឺជា​ធនធាន​ជាតិ​មួយ ដែល​ផ្តល់​អំណាច​ដល់​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​តាមរយៈ​គតិបណ្ឌិត​ជា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​ក្នុងការ​គ្រប់គ្រង ទំនាក់ទំនង​ជាមួយនឹង​ប្រទេសជិតខាង​និង​ពិភពលោក​។​

​​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា ជាពិសេស​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា ផ្តល់​ជា​ធនធាន​ដ៏​ចាំបាច់​មួយ​សម្រាប់​ការអភិវឌ្ឍ​គតិបណ្ឌិត​ជា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​របស់​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​ប្រទេសជាតិ​របស់​យើង អ្នកដឹកនាំ​ក្នុង​តំបន់ និង​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​កម្រិត​ពិភពលោក​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​កម្ពុជា ពោរពេញ​ទៅដោយ​មេរៀន អំពី​វិធីសាស្ត្រ​បែបណា​និង​ពេលវេលា​ស​ក្កិ​សម​ណាមួយ​ដែល​គួរ​ដាក់​កំហិត អត់ធ្មត់ ឬ​តតាំង​ដោយ​អង់អាច ក្នុងការ​ការពារ​សន្តិ​សុខ​ជាតិ​ប្រកបដោយ​ភាពវៀងវៃ​។ ថ្នាក់ដឹកនាំ​យោធា​របស់​កម្ពុជា អាច​ចាត់ទុក​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​កម្ពុជា ថា​ជា​ធនធាន​ជាតិ​មួយ ក្នុងការ​ដុសខាត់​កសាង​គតិបណ្ឌិត​ជា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​របស់ខ្លួន និង​ការបង្កើន​ជំនាញ​វិជ្ជាជីវៈ​របស់​អង្គភាព​និង​មន្ត្រី​យោធា​របស់ខ្លួន​ថែម​ទៀតផង​។

​សន្តិសុខ​ជាតិ​របស់​កម្ពុជា ពឹងផ្អែក​ទៅលើ​អង្គភាព​យោធា​ប្រកបដោយ​ជំនាញ​វិជ្ជាជីវៈ​។ អង្គភាព​យោធា​ប្រកបដោយ​ជំនាញ​វិជ្ជាជីវៈ​ទាមទារ​នូវ​ថ្នាក់ដឹកនាំ​ពោរពេញ​ដោយ​សមត្ថភាព ដែល​មិន​ត្រឹម​ជា​អ្នកជំនាញ​រៀបចំ​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ទេ​ប៉ុន្តែ​ថែមទាំង​ជា​អ្នកប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​ទៀតផង​ពីព្រោះថា​គ្មាន​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ ជោគជ័យ​ណាមួយ ដែល​អាច​បង្កើតឡើងបាន​ដោយ​គ្មាន​ការយល់ដឹង​អំពី​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​នោះឡើយ​។

​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កំណត់​នូវ​សមាសធាតុ​ស្នូល សម្រាប់​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​ជោគជ័យ​នានា​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា ធានាថា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​មួយ​មិនមែន​រួមបញ្ចូល​តែ​បរិបទ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ យុទ្ធវិធី និង​ទ្រឹស្តី​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ទេ​ប៉ុន្តែ​ថែមទាំង​គួបផ្សំ​នូវ​ជោគជ័យ​និង​កំហុស​ពី​អតីតកាល​ថែម​ទៀតផង​។​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​អាច​ផ្តល់​ជា​គោល​គំនិត​ដល់​យើង ថា​តើ​គោលបំណង​នៃ​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​របស់​យើង​អាច​ទទួលយកបាន​ឬទេ​? ថា​តើ​វិធីសាស្ត្រ​ឈានទៅ​សម្រេច​គោលបំណង​របស់​យើង អាច​បត់បែន​តាម​កាលៈ​ទេសៈ ដែរឬទេ​? ថា​តើ​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​ពី​​មុនៗ របស់​យើង​បាន​ប្រើប្រាស់​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​ដូចគ្នា ឬ​ខុសគ្នា​បែបណា​នាពេល​កន្លងទៅ​? ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា គឺជា​សមាសធាតុ​ស្នូល​គួបផ្សំ​បញ្ចូល​គ្នា​នូវ​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​និង​សន្តិសុខ​ជាតិ​។​

​ប្រជាជាតិ​ជា​សមាជិក​និង​សហ​ថ្នាក់ដឹកនាំ​នៃ​សមាគម​ប្រជាជាតិ​អាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍ (​អាស៊ាន​) ត្រូវការ​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​ដែលជា​អ្នកប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​ផង​និង​ជា​អ្នករៀបចំ​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​ផង​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​កម្ពុជា មាន​សារសំខាន់​ឥតពីរ ចំពោះ​សន្តិភាព និង​សន្តិសុខ​នៅក្នុង​តំបន់ ពីព្រោះថា​សមរភូមិ ការតស៊ូ និង​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​ភូមិសាស្ត្រ​នយោបាយ​ជាច្រើន ត្រូវបាន​ផ្តោត​នៅក្នុង​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​កម្ពុជា​។ ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា គឺជា​ចំណុច​ប្រជុំ​ទម្ងន់​ដ៏​សំខាន់​មួយ​ក្នុងអំឡុង​សង្គ្រាម ជម្លោះ និង​ការតស៊ូ​ជាច្រើន​ដែល​កើតមាន​នៅក្នុង​តំបន់​នា​សតវត្សរ៍​ទី​២០​។ បន្ទាប់ពី​សង្គ្រាម​ឥណ្ឌូចិន​លើកទីមួយ​បានបញ្ចប់​ទៅ ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​ទទួលបាន​ឯករាជ្យ ចំណែកឯ​នៅក្នុង​អំឡុង​សង្គ្រាម​ឥណ្ឌូចិន​លើក​ទី​ពីរ ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​គឺជា​ចំណុចកណ្តាល​មួយ​នៃ​ការទម្លាក់​គ្រាប់បែក​ទ្រង់ទ្រាយ​ធំ​បំផុត​នៅក្នុង​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​ពិភពលោក​។ ទីតាំង​ភូមិសាស្ត្រ​នយោបាយ​របស់​កម្ពុជា នៅក្នុង​អំឡុង​សង្គ្រាម​ឥណ្ឌូចិន​លើក​ទី​ពីរ ញ៉ាំង​ឲ្យ​កម្ពុជា​ក្លាយជា​វាល​សមរភូមិ​ដ៏​សំខាន់​មួយ​រវាង​គូប្រកួត​ប្រជែង​អំណាច​មួយចំនួន​។

​នៅ​ចន្លោះ​ឆ្នាំ​១៩៧៥​ដល់​ឆ្នាំ​១៩៧៩ ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា​បានទទួល​រងទុក្ខវេទនា ពី​សោកនាដកម្ម​ហួស​ពី​ការ​ស្មាន​នៅក្រោម​របប​ប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍​ខ្មែរក្រហម​។ ថ្វីត្បិតតែ​របប​ខ្មែរក្រហម​ត្រូវ​ផ្តួលរំលំ​តាំងពី​ឆ្នាំ​១៩៧៩​ទៅហើយ​ក្តី ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​បន្ត​ប្រឈម​ជាមួយនឹង​សង្គ្រាម ទុរភិក្ស និង​វិបត្តិ​មនុស្សធម៌​នានា ដែល​បង្ក​ឲ្យ​មានការ​បាត់បង់​ជីវិត ការជម្លៀស​ទីតាំង ឬ​ការប្តូរ​ទីជម្រក​របស់​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា​រាប់លាន​នាក់​។ បរាជ័យ​របស់​ខ្មែរក្រហម មិន​ត្រឹមតែ​ជា​ជោគជ័យ​ជា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​របស់​ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​តែប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ទេ ប៉ុន្តែ​ថែមទាំង​ជា​ជោគជ័យ​ជា​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​សម្រាប់​អាស៊ាន និង​ពិភពលោក​ថែម​ទៀតផង​។​

​ការចូលរួម សមយុទ្ធ និង​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​យោធា ដែល​បាន​អនុវត្ត​នៅក្នុង​ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​នៅ​រវាង​ឆ្នាំ​១៩៧៩​ដល់​ឆ្នាំ​១៩៩៣ បាន​អង្រួន​តំបន់​អាស៊ាន ហើយ​នៅក្នុង​កម្រិត​មួយ កម្លាំងចលករ​ទាំងនេះ​បាន​(​និង​នៅតែ​បន្ត​)​កំណត់​សណ្ឋាន​នៃ​ភូមិសាស្ត្រ​នយោបាយ​របស់​អាស៊ាន​ប​ច្ចុ​ប្បន្ន​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​កម្ពុជា គឺជា​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​ដែល​មិន​ត្រឹមតែ​រួមបញ្ចូល​សមរភូមិ​និង​សមយុទ្ធ​យោធា​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​ទេ ប៉ុន្តែ​ថែមទាំង​រួមផ្សំ​នូវ​ការសម្រេចចិត្ត​នយោបាយ​ជា​គោល​និង​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​សំខាន់ៗ​ដែល​នៅតែ​ជា​កំណត់​យោង​ដ៏​ចាំបាច់​សម្រាប់​ផ្តល់​ដល់​សន្តិសុខ​ជាតិ​និង​យុទ្ធសាស្ត្រ​អាស៊ាន​ជារួម នៅក្នុង​តំបន់​អាស៊ីអាគ្នេយ៍​សព្វថ្ងៃនេះ​។

​ខណៈពេលដែល​យើង​រំឭក​ខួប​លើក​ទី​៣០​នៃ​សន្ធិសញ្ញា​សន្តិភាព​ទីក្រុង​ប៉ារីស យើង​គួរ​ឆ្លៀត​យក​ឱកាស​នេះ ដើម្បី​សញ្ជឹងគិត​អំពី​អ្វីដែល​យើង​បាន​រៀនសូត្រ​ពី​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​នៅ​ជុំវិញ​សន្ធិសញ្ញា​នេះ និង​ឆ្លុះ​ប​ញ្ជាំ​ង​អំពី​អ្វីខ្លះ ដែល​យើង​បាន​ឈ្វេងយល់​ពី​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​ទាំងស្រុង​របស់​កម្ពុជា​។ គ្មាន​ពេលវេលា​ណា​ដែល​ស​ក្កិ​សមជា​ង​ពេលបច្ចុប្បន្ន​ក្នុងការ​រំលេច​ចេញ​នូវ​សារសំខាន់​នៃ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ ស្រប​ពេលដែល​កម្ពុជា​កំពុង​ត្រៀមខ្លួន​ធ្វើជា​ម្ចាស់ផ្ទះ​នៃ​កិច្ចប្រជុំ​អាស៊ាន​ក្នុង​ឆ្នាំ​២០២២​។ ខណៈពេលដែល​កម្ពុជា កំពុង​ត្រៀម​រៀបចំ​កិច្ចប្រជុំ​អាស៊ាន យើង​គួរតែ​ទទួលស្គាល់​តួនាទី​ក្នុង​ការដឹកនាំ​កិច្ចប្រជុំ​នេះ ថា​ជា​ឱកាស​មួយ​ក្នុងការ​ប្រើប្រាស់​ធនធាន​នានា​ក្នុងចំណោម​ធនធាន​ទាំងឡាយ ជាពិសេស​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា​ឲ្យ​មាន​ប្រសិទ្ធភាព ឈានទៅ​សម្រេចបាន​ការអភិវឌ្ឍ ភាពជា​ដៃគូ​សហការ និង​ភាពជា​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​ជារួម​សម្រាប់​ប្រជាជន​កម្ពុជា​និង​ប្រជាជន​អាស៊ាន​។ ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​កម្ពុជា គឺជា​ផ្នែក​និង​ធាតុ​ផ្សំ​ចម្បង​ក្នុងការ​ឈានទៅ​បង្កើត​សន្តិភាព​និង​សន្តិសុខ​រួមគ្នា​មួយ​សម្រាប់​តំបន់​អាស៊ាន​។

​លោក ឆាំង យុ គឺជា​នាយក​ប្រតិបត្តិ​មជ្ឈមណ្ឌល​ឯកសារ​កម្ពុជា និង​ជា​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​ម្នា​ក់លើ​ការអប់រំ ការរារាំង​ទប់ស្កាត់ និង​ការសិក្សា​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​ពី​អំពើ​ប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍​។ នៅក្នុង​ឆ្នាំ​២០១៨ លោក ឆាំង យុ ទទួលបាន​ពានរង្វាន់ រ៉ា​មុន ម៉ា​កសៃ​សៃ ដែល​ត្រូវ​ស្គាល់​ថា​ជា “​ពានរង្វាន់​ណូបែល​អាស៊ី​” សម្រាប់​ការងារ​របស់លោក​ក្នុងការ​ថែរក្សា​ការចងចាំ​ពី​អំពើ​ប្រល័យពូជសាសន៍ និង​ការស្វែងរក​យុត្តិធម៌​សម្រាប់​ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​និង​ពិភពលោក​។ នៅក្នុង​ឆ្នាំ​២០០៧ លោក​ត្រូវបាន​ជ្រើសរើស​ជា​បុគ្គល​ដ៏​មាន​ឥទ្ធិពល​បំផុត​ទាំង​១០០​នាក់​របស់​ទស្សនាវដ្ដី​ថា​ម​ស៍​។ លោក ឆាំង យុ បាន​បំពេញការងារ​ជាមួយ​ស្ថាប័ន​និង​អ្នកដឹកនាំ​សង្គម​ស៊ីវិល​ជាច្រើន​នៅ​ជុំវិញ​ពិភពលោក ដែល​ក្នុងនោះ​រួមមាន​ប្រទេស​អ៊ីរ៉ាក់ ប្រទេស​អា​ហ្វ​ហ្កា​នី​ស្តា​ន ប្រទេស​ស៊ី​រី ប្រទេស​មី​យ៉ាន់​ម៉ា និង​ប្រទេស​កំពុង​អភិវឌ្ឍ​ក្រោយ​ជម្លោះ​ដទៃ​ផ្សេងៗ​ទៀត​។ នា​រយៈពេល​១៨​ខែ​ចុង​ក្រោយនេះ លោក​បាន​សិក្សា​ស្រាវជ្រាវ​លម្អិត​អំពី​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា​កម្ពុជា និង​តំបន់​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​យោធា ជាមួយនឹង​ឧ​ត្ត​ម​សេនីយ៍ ណឹ​ម សុវត្ថិ នៃ​ក្រសួងការពារជាតិ​កម្ពុ​ជា​៕

ประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหารของกัมพูชาว่าด้วยเรื่องของบทเรียนเกี่ยวกับความอดทนอดกลั้น และความกล้าหาญในการปกป้องความมั่นคงของชาติ

เนื่องในโอกาสครบรอบ៣០ ปีของข้อตกลงสันติภาพปารีส เราควรถือโอกาสนี้ในการเรียนรู้และตระหนักถึงความสำคัญของประวัติศาสตร์ โดยเฉพาะประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหารของกัมพูชาในระดับภูมิภาคและระดับโลก ประวัติศาสตร์ของกัมพูชาได้รับการยอมรับว่าเป็นแหล่งข้อมูลระดับชาติเกี่ยวกับการพัฒนาเชิงยุทธศาสตร์ อิทธิพล และความเป็นผู้นำของประเทศในภูมิภาคอาเซียน

ประวัติศาสตร์การทหารนั้นนอกจากจะเป็นการศึกษาวิจัยเกี่ยวกับสงครามและการวิเคราะห์ชัยชนะและความพ่ายแพ้แล้ว ประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหารยังอธิบายถึงระบอบการปกครองไปจนถึงการเปลี่ยนแปลงของประเทศต่าง ๆ รวมถึงสิ่งที่มนุษยชาติได้เรียนรู้จากความผิดพลาด และวิธีการนำความรู้นั้นไปปรับใช้

ประวัติศาสตร์ของประเทศกัมพูชาไม่ได้บทเรียนสำคัญสำหรับประเทศ แต่ยังครอบคลุมไปถึงระดับภูมิภาค และระดับโลก

กัมพูชาเป็นทางแยกสำคัญในช่วงสงครามเย็นด้วยความขัดแย้งระหว่างอุดมการณ์ ระบบการเมือง และวาระนโยบายต่างประเทศ ประวัติของกัมพูชาที่เป็นส่วนสำคัญต่อประวัติศาสตร์และที่มาของการแทรกแซงจากต่างประเทศในภูมิภาค ซึ่งแสดงให้เห็นว่าประเทศกัมพูชานั้นมีความสำคัญต่อความมั่นคงในภูมิภาค รวมถึงความมั่นคงของภูมิภาคที่มีความสำคัญต่อความมั่นคงระดับโลก

นอกจากนี้ ความโหดร้ายของมนุษย์ สงคราม และการตัดทอนสิทธิมนุษย์ที่เป็นส่วนสำคัญและส่วนหลักของประวัติศาสตร์กัมพูชาในช่วงหลังศตวรรษที่ ២០ ได้ให้บทเรียนที่สำคัญเกี่ยวกับผลกระทบจากความไม่มั่นคงของประเทศ สงคราม และการฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์ ประวัติศาสตร์ของกัมพูชาเปรียบเสมือนเป็นภาพฉายของจิตวิญญาณมนุษย์ ในขณะเดียวกันก็เป็นภาพฉายของส่วนลึกในความเลวทรามของมนุษย์อีกด้วย

การรุกล้ำ การยึดครอง และกระทั่งการแย่งชิงอาณาเขตจากชาวกัมพูชาโดยประเทศเพื่อนบ้านเคยทำให้ประวัติศาสตร์ของกัมพูชาต้องถูกปรับเปลี่ยนและคั่นกลางมาหลายครั้ง แม้ว่าการศึกษาประวัติศาสตร์ในด้านความสัมพันธ์ ข้อพิพาท และความขัดแย้งในอดีตเหล่านี้จะไม่ใช่แนวทางหรือกิจการทางการทูตและการทหารในปัจจุบันหรืออนาคตแล้ว แต่อย่างไรก็ตามประวัติศาสตร์เหล่านี้ล้วนเป็นทรัพยากรของชาติและช่วยสนับสนุนภูมิปัญญาเชิงกลยุทธ์ให้กับผู้นำในการจัดการความสัมพันธ์กับเพื่อนบ้านและความสัมพันธ์กับโลกได้ดียิ่งขึ้น

ประวัติศาสตร์ของกัมพูชา โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหาร เป็นแหล่งทรัพยากรที่สำคัญในการพัฒนาภูมิปัญญาเชิงยุทธศาสตร์สำหรับผู้นำของประเทศ ผู้นำภูมิภาค และผู้นำโลก ประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหารของกัมพูชาเต็มไปด้วยบทเรียนเกี่ยวกับวิธีการและเวลาที่ต้องฝึกความอดทนอดกลั้น เมื่อใดควรใช้ความอดทน และเมื่อใดควรใช้ความกล้าหาญในการปกป้องความมั่นคงของชาติ ผู้นำทหารกัมพูชาควรมองประวัติศาสตร์การทหารของกัมพูชาให้เป็นแหล่งทรัพยากรของชาติในการสร้างภูมิปัญญาเชิงกลยุทธ์ของตนเอง รวมไปถึงความเป็นมืออาชีพของคณะทหารและพลทหารในยศต่าง ๆ

ความมั่นคงของชาติกัมพูชาขึ้นอยู่กับความเป็นมืออาชีพของคณะทหาร แน่นอนว่าคณะทหารมืออาชีพต้องการผู้นำที่มีความสามารถ ซึ่งไม่เพียงแต่เป็นนักยุทธศาสตร์เท่านั้น แต่ยังต้องเป็นนักประวัติศาสตร์อีกด้วย เพราะหากปราศจากความเข้าใจในประวัติศาสตร์แล้ว ก็ไร้กลยุทธ์ที่จะประสบความสำเร็จในการพัฒนาได้ทางการทหารได้

ประวัติศาสตร์เป็นตัวกำหนดองค์ประกอบหลักของกลยุทธ์ที่ประสบความสำเร็จ ประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหารเป็นทรัพยากรที่ทำให้มั่นใจได้ว่านอกจากสภาพแวดล้อมการปฏิบัติการ ยุทธวิธี และหลักการในปัจจุบันที่ล้วนมีผลต่อกลยุทธ์แล้ว ความสำเร็จและความผิดพลาดในอดีตก็มีผลต่อกลยุทธ์ที่ใช้ในปัจจุบันอีกด้วย ประวัติศาสตร์สามารถให้ข้อมูลเชิงลึกได้ว่าวัตถุประสงค์ของกลยุทธ์เป็นที่ยอมรับหรือไม่ วิธีการเพื่อให้บรรลุวัตถุประสงค์เหล่านั้นเป็นไปได้หรือไม่ และผู้ที่เคยใช้กลยุทธ์เดียวกันหรือต่างกันในอดีตนั้นเป็นอย่างไร ประวัติศาสตร์การทหารถือเป็นองค์ประกอบสำคัญของกลยุทธ์ทางทหารและความมั่นคงของชาติ

ประเทศสมาชิกและความเป็นผู้นำร่วมของสมาคมประชาชาติแห่งเอเชียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้ (ASEAN) ยังต้องการผู้นำที่นอกจากจะเป็นนักประวัติศาสตร์ ยังต้องเป็นนักยุทธศาสตร์อีกด้วย ประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหารของกัมพูชามีความสำคัญอย่างยิ่งต่อสันติภาพและความมั่นคงของภูมิภาค เนื่องจากเรื่องราวของการสู้รบ การดิ้นรน และยุทธศาสตร์ทางภูมิรัฐศาสตร์จำนวนมากล้วนมีศูนย์กลางอยู่ที่ประวัติศาสตร์การทหารของกัมพูชา

กัมพูชาเป็นศูนย์กลางที่สำคัญระหว่างสงคราม ความขัดแย้ง และการดิ้นรน เพราะสิ่งเหล่านี้ล้วนเป็นปัญหาสำคัญของกัมพูชาในสมัยศตวรรษที่ ២០​​ หลังสงครามอินโดจีนครั้งที่ ១​กัมพูชาได้รับเอกราช และระหว่างสงครามอินโดจีนครั้งที่สอง กัมพูชาได้ถูกทิ้งระเบิดทางอากาศครั้งใหญ่ที่สุดครั้งหนึ่งในประวัติศาสตร์โลก จึงทำให้ตำแหน่งทางภูมิศาสตร์การเมืองของกัมพูชาในช่วงสงครามอินโดจีนครั้งที่สองกลายเป็นสนามรบที่สำคัญของหลายฝ่าย

ในช่วงปี พ.ศ. ២៥១៨-២៥២២ ชาวกัมพูชาประสบโศกนาฏกรรมการฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์ภายใต้ระบอบเขมรแดง และแม้ว่าเขมรแดงจะถูกโค่นอำนาจในปี ២៥២២ แต่กัมพูชายังคงต่อสู้กับสงคราม การกันดารอาหาร และวิกฤตการณ์ด้านมนุษยธรรมส่งผลให้มีผู้เสียชีวิต การพลัดถิ่น หรือการตั้งถิ่นฐานใหม่ของชาวกัมพูชาหลายล้านคน ความพ่ายแพ้ของเขมรแดงไม่ได้เป็นเพียงแค่ชัยชนะทางยุทธศาสตร์สำหรับกัมพูชาเท่านั้น แต่ยังเป็นชัยชนะเชิงกลยุทธ์ของประเทศอาเซียนและของโลกอีกด้วย

การปะทะ การซ้อมรบ และยุทธศาสตร์ทางทหารที่เกิดขึ้นในกัมพูชาระหว่างปี ២៥២២ ถึง ២៥៣៦ ได้แผ่ขยายไปทั่วภูมิภาค และบางส่วนของกองกำลังเหล่านี้ได้กำหนดภูมิรัฐศาสตร์ของอาเซียนในปัจจุบันอีกด้วย ประวัติศาสตร์ทางการทหารของกัมพูชาไม่เพียงแต่เป็นประวัติศาสตร์ของการสู้รบและการซ้อมรบทางทหารเท่านั้น แต่ยังรวมถึงกลยุทธ์การตัดสินใจทางการเมืองที่สามารถใช้เป็นข้อมูลอ้างอิงที่สำคัญต่อความมั่นคงของชาติและยุทธศาสตร์อาเซียนโดยรวมในภูมิภาคเอเชียตะวันออกเฉียงใต้ในปัจจุบันอีกด้วย

เนื่องในโอกาสครบรอบ ៣០ ปีของข้อตกลงสันติภาพปารีส เราควรถือโอกาสนี้ในการเรียนรู้ประวัติศาสตร์เกี่ยวกับข้อตกลงดังกล่าว และวิเคราะห์สิ่งที่เราได้เรียนรู้จากประวัติศาสตร์กัมพูชา และตอนนี้ประวัติศาสตร์กัมพูชาจะได้รับความยิ่งใหญ่อีกครั้ง เนื่องจากกัมพูชากำลังเตรียมเข้ารับตำแหน่งประธานอาเซียนในปี พ.ศ. ២៥៦៥

ในขณะที่กัมพูชากำลังเตรียมพร้อมสู่การดำรงตำแหน่งเป็นประธานอาเซียน บทบาทความเป็นผู้นำอาเซียนที่กำลังจะเกิดขึ้นนี้ถือเป็นโอกาสของประเทศกัมพูชาในการใช้ประโยชน์จากประวัติศาสตร์ในการพัฒนาความร่วมมือและความเป็นผู้นำของชาวกัมพูชาและประชาชนในประเทศอาเซียนผู้เขียน

Youk Chhang

Youk Chhang เป็นผู้อำนวยการศูนย์เอกสารของกัมพูชา และเป็นผู้นำการศึกษา การป้องกัน และการวิจัยการฆ่าล้างเผ่าพันธุ์ ในช่วง ១៨ เดือนที่ผ่านมา Youk ได้ทำการศึกษาวิจัยอย่างละเอียดเกี่ยวกับประวัติศาสตร์การทหารของกัมพูชาและเขตการทหารกับพลเอก Nem Sowath กระทรวงกลาโหมกัมพูชา

Samdech Pichey Sena Tea Banh รองนายกรัฐมนตรีและรัฐมนตรีว่าการกระทรวงกลาโหมกัมพูชา (ขวา) และพลเอก Nem Sowath ที่ปรึกษาพิเศษรัฐมนตรีกระทรวงกลาโหม (ซ้าย) ตรวจสอบแผนการสร้างอนุสาวรีย์ชนะ-ชนะของศูนย์สันติภาพอันหลงเวง เครดิต: Ly Kok-Chay

Samdech Pichey Sena Tea Banh รองนายกรัฐมนตรีและรัฐมนตรีว่าการกระทรวงกลาโหมของกัมพูชา (นั่งซ้าย) และที่พลเอก Nem Sowath ที่ปรึกษาพิเศษรัฐมนตรีกระทรวงกลาโหม (ยืนขวา) พลโท Meas Sina (ยืนซ้าย) และ Youk Chhang (นั่ง) กำลังเยี่ยมชมเขตประวัติศาสตร์การทหารที่เสนอใกล้ศูนย์สันติภาพ Anlong Veng จังหวัด Oddar Meanchey ตามแนวชายแดนกัมพูชา – ไทย ภาพถ่ายโดย Ly Kok-Chhay วันที่ ៦ มีนาคม ២៥៦៣

Note: The author is only responsible for his original article in English, published on The Diplomat, dated October 22, 2021. First-Class Solutions Ltd. is responsible for the Thai language translation.

Lịch sử quân sự Campuchia chứa nhiều bài học về cách (và khi nào) cần thể hiện sự kiềm chế, nhẫn nại và gắn kết trong việc bảo vệ an ninh quốc gia

Viết bởi Youk Chhang

Nhân dịp kỷ niệm 30 năm Hiệp Định Hoà Bình Paris, chúng tôi muốn bày tỏ ghi nhận sự quan trọng của lịch sử, đặc biệt là lịch sử quân sự Campuchia, trong khu vực và trên toàn thế giới. Lịch sử Campuchia cần được công nhận như tài sản quốc gia cho việc phát triển đất nước mang tính chiến lược, sự tác động, và vai trò lãnh đạo trong khu vực Đông Nam Á.

Lịch sử quân sự được mô tả như một cuộc nghiên cứu chiến tranh và phân tích chiến thắng của sự đánh bại kẻ thù, tuy nhiên, nó còn bao hàm nhiều ý nghĩa hơn thế nữa. Lịch sử quân sự bao gồm một loạt các đề tài khác nhau, từ việc đi lên hay thoái trào của các chế độ đến việc chuyển mình của các quốc gia, và con người chúng ta lặp lại hay là học hỏi từ các sai lầm trong quá khứ như thế nào. Lịch sử Campuchia chứa nhiều bài học quý báu cho đất nước, khu vực và thế giới.

Campuchia đã là một ngã rẽ có ý nghĩa trong cuộc Chiến Tranh Lạnh giữa các hệ tư tưởng, hệ thống chính trị, và các chính sách chính trị của nước ngoài. Lịch sử của Campuchia đã dẫn đến, và bao gồm một phần của, lịch sử sự can thiệp của các nước khác trong khu vực chứng tỏ đất nước này quan trọng như thế nào đối với an ninh trong khu vực, và an ninh của khu vực đối với an ninh toàn cầu. Thêm vào đó, sự tàn bạo, chiến tranh, và sự cưỡng đoạt đã tô màu thêm vào lịch sử Campuchia trong thời kỳ hậu thế kỷ 20, mang đến bài học quan trọng về các tình huống bị dồn ép vào hoàn cảnh khó khăn và là hậu quả của sự không ổn định, chiến tranh và sự diệt chủng. Lịch sử Campuchia là một minh hoạ của tinh thần dân tộc đồng thời là một bài học sâu sắc về sự đồi bại của con người.

Lịch sửa của Campuchia cũng là một sự nhấn mạnh về các ý đồ xâm lấn, chiếm đóng, kể cả chiếm đoạt lãnh thổ Campuchia từ tay nhân dân Campuchia. Nghiên cứu về lịch sử của các sự quan hệ, tranh chấp, và mâu thuẫn trong quá khứ không phải tạo tiền đề cho các vấn đề ngoại giao hoặc quân sự, tuy nhiên, lịch sử này là nguồn tài nguyên quốc gia trang bị cho các lãnh đạo về chiến lược khôn ngoan trong cách quản lý các mối quan hệ với các nước láng giềng và trên thế giới.

Lịch sử Campuchia, đặc biệt là lịch sử quân sự, mang lại kinh nghiệm quí báu cho sự phát triển các chiến lược khôn ngoan của đất nước Campuchia, của khu vực và lãnh đạo trên thế giới. Lịch sử quân sự Campuchia chứa nhiều bài học về cách (và khi nào) cần thực hành sự kiềm chế, khi nào cần thể hiện lòng kiên nhẫn, và khi nào thể hiện sự gắn kết trong việc bảo vệ an ninh quốc gia một cách khôn ngoan. Các nhà lãnh đạo quân sự Campuchia có thể xem lịch sử quân sự Campuchia như là một tài sản quốc gia để không chỉ xây dựng nên các chiến lược không ngoan mà còn là sự chuyên nghiệp trong việc tổ chức cơ cấu quân sự.

An ninh quốc gia Campuchia sẽ tuỳ thuộc vào một tổ chức quân sự chuyên nghiệp. Các tổ chức quân sự chuyên nghiệp đòi hỏi các nhà lãnh đạo năng lực, đó không chỉ là các nhà chiến lược mà còn là những nhà sử học – bởi vì chiến lược thành công cần phải được xây dựng dựa trên sự am tường lịch sử. 

Lịch sử đã mài dũa các yếu tố cốt lõi cần thiết cho chiến lược thành công. Lịch sử quân sự bảo đảm rằng chiến lược không chỉ được thiết lập dựa trên môi trường hoạt động, các chiến thuật, và học thuyết hiện tại, mà còn cần dựa vào sự thành công và lỗi lầm trong quá khứ. Lịch sử có thể giúp ta am hiểu về các mục tiêu của một chiến lược có đáng được chấp nhận hay không, phương pháp thực hiện để đạt được mục tiêu có khả thi không, và những người tiền nhiệm đã làm thế nào để đưa ra quyết định ứng dụng lại chiến lược hay ứng dụng chiến lược khác nhau trong quá khứ. Lịch sử quân sự là yếu tố quan trọng của việc kết hợp các chiến lược.

Các quốc gia thành viên và sự lãnh đạo của các quốc gia thuộc Hiệp Hội Các Nước Đông Nam Á (ASEAN) cũng yêu cầu các nhà lãnh đạo vừa là nhà lịch sử học cũng như nhà chiến lược. Lịch sử quân sự Campuchia là quan trọng duy nhất cho hoà bình và an ninh của khu vực bởi vì đã có rất nhiều cuộc chiến đấu, đấu tranh, và chiến lược địa lý chính trị tập trung vào lịch sử quân sự Camphuchia.

Campuchia đã là trung tâm của các cuộc chiến tranh nghiêm trọng, mâu thuẩn, và đấu tranh đưa đến nhiều rắc rối trong khu vực trong thế kỷ 20. Trong cuộc Chiến Tranh Đông Dương Lần Thứ Nhất, Campuchia đã trở nên độc lập, và trong cuộc Chiến Tranh Đông Dương Lần Thứ Hai, Campuchia đã là tâm điểm của một trong những cuộc oanh tạc trên không lớn nhất trong lịch sử thế giới. Vị trí địa lý chính trị của Campuchia trong thời kỳ Chiến Tranh Đông Dương Lần Thứ Hai đã làm cho nó trở thành một chiến trường quan trọng giữa các nước chiến tranh với nhau.

Trong các năm 1975-1979, nhân dân Campuchia đã chịu đựng bi kịch không thể mô tả thành lời dưới chế độ diệt chủng Khmer Đỏ, và cho dù Khmer Đỏ đã bị lật đổ năm 1979, Campuchia vẫn tiếp tục tranh đấu với chiến tranh, nạn đói, khủng hoảng về quyền nhân đạo, đưa đến sự chết chốc, di dân, hoặc tái định cư của hàng triệu người dân Campuchia. Sự bài trừ quân Khmer Đỏ không chỉ là một chiến thắng mang tính chiến lược cho Campuchia mà còn là một chiến thắng chiến lược cho ASEAN và thế giới.

Các thoả thuận quân sự, các cuộc diễn tập, và chiến thuật đã diễn ra tại Campuchia trong khoảng thời gian 1979 và 1993 đã gây ra các làn sóng trong khu vực, và trong chừng mực nào đó rất nhiều trong số này đã hình thành (và vẫn đang hình thành) nên các vị trí chính trị của ASEAN ngày nay.

Nhân dịp kỷ niệm lần thứ 30 Các Hiệp Định Hoà Bình Paris, chúng ta hãy nhân cơ hội này bày tỏ không chỉ những gì chúng ta đã học được từ lịch sử qua các hiệp định này, mà chúng ta còn học được rất nhiều từ tất cả những gì đã có trong lịch sử Campuchia. Sự quan trọng của lịch sử lớn hơn bao giờ hết, khi Campuchia chuẩn bị cho việc tổ chức hội nghị ASEAN vào năm 2022.

Nhân dịp Campuchhia đang chuẩn bị cho lượt tổ chức ASEAN sắp tới, chúng ta nên ghi nhận vai trò lãnh đạo sắp tới như là một cơ hội để lan toả, cùng với các nguồn tài nguyên khác, lịch sử Campuchia để chứng tỏ sự phát triển cộng đồng, tinh thần hợp tác, và vai trò lãnh đạo của nhân dân Campuchia và nhân dân các nước Đông Nam Á. Lịch sử Campuchia là một phần của tầm nhìn cho một hoà bình chung và an ninh cho các nước Đông Nam Á trong khu vực.


Youk Chhang

 Youk Chhang là Giám Đốc của Trung Tâm Tài Liệu Campuchia, và là một nhà lãnh đạo trong giáo dục, nghiên cứu và phòng chống nạn diệt chủng. Năm 2018, Chhang được nhận Giải Thưởng Ramon Magsaysay, được xem như là “Giải Nobel Châu Á” cho cống hiến của ông trong việc bảo tồn ký ức về sự diệt chủng và đi tìm công lý trong phạm vi đất nước Campuchi cũng như trên thế giới. năm 2007, ông được đề cử trong Top 100 người đàn ông và phụ nữ của Tạp Chí Times. Chhang đã cộng tác với nhiều tổ chức xã hội dân sự cũng như các lãnh đạo trên toàn thế giới, bao gồm I Rắc, Ap-ga-nix-tan, Si-ria, Miến Điện, và các nước đang phát triển kể từ sau các cuộc xung đột. Trong suốt 18 tháng qua, ông cũng đã thực hiện nhiều cuộc nghiên cứu sâu về lịch sử quân sự Campuchia và các vùng quân sự cùng với Tướng Quân Nem Sowath của Bộ Quốc Phòng Campuchia.

Samdech Pichey Sena Tea Banh, phó bộ trưởng và bộ trưởng bộ quốc phòng Camphuchia (bên phải), và Tướng Quân Nem Sowath, cố vấn đặc biệt của bộ quốc phòng (bên trái) đang kiểm tra kế hoạch Trung Tâm Hoà Bình Anlong Veng để xây dựng Đài Tưởng Niệm Win-Win.

Hình cung cấp bởi Ly Kok-Chhay.

Samdech Pichey Sena Tea Banh, phó bộ trưởng và bộ trưởng bộ quốc phòng Camphuchia (ngồi bên trái), và cố vấn đặc biệt của ông – Tướng Quân Nem Sowat (đứng bên phải), Trung Tướng Meas Sina (đứng bên trái), và Youk Chhang (ngồi), trong một cuộc viếng thăm dự án khu lịch sử quân sự gần Trung Tam Hoà Bình Anlong Veng, tỉnh Oddar Meanchey, dọc theo biên giới Campuchia-Thái lan.

Hình được cung cấp bởi Ly Kok-Chhay, 06 tháng 3 năm 2020.